1.1 Battery Basics

A “battery” is a collection of cells that work together to achieve a desired voltage and watt hours (capacity) for the bike. There are a number metallurgiesof cells used in electric bikes.Each metallurgy has it’s strengths, weaknesses, and different requirements for care and safety. It is important to know the type of metallurgy used in ebikes because mishandling of batteries can result ina ruined battery.Hulikkal uses lithium-Ion technology over the other Lead Acid (LA) based vehicles currently in the market. We use only long lasting Lithium-Ion cells in batteries which are perfectly environment friendly. Whereas all other popular current players in the industry use traditional lead acid batteries that are prone to leakage and require expensive yearly battery replacement.

There are also cheaper variants of Lithium Ion batteries that have flooded the Indian market , these usually dont give the desired life and also charge very slowly , so we adivise you to check the performace specifications of the Lithium Ion battery , which is number of life cycles and charging time before chosing the e-bike.

1.2 Cells and Performance

Cells are active for only a few years at best, often less time than that. They can be damaged when their state of charge falls below a certain value, or when they are over charged, over heated, crushed, penetrated, etc. Such damage reduces cell performance.
Hulikkal lithium-ion battery uses fast charging to quickly reach 80%of its capacity, and then switches to tricklecharging. The amount of time it takes to reach 80% charge is just 60mins and for the rest 20% is 30 mins. This combined process not only lets you get out sooner, it also extends the lifespan of your battery.

2.1 Lithium batteries and charging

Lithium batteries are more compact, lighter in weight, operate in a wide range of temperature zones, low self-discharge, non-toxic, reusable, higher energy density, cycle life ranges from 1000 to 1200 cycles. However, Lithium batteries are a bit expensive, (though quite affordable now) flammable, need a sophisticated Battery Management System, BMS. It is important to use the right charger for the lithium batteries. Hulikkal lithium e-bike batteries are equipped with state-of-the-art BMS, the normal result of any irregularity in the battery function is for the BMS to shut the battery down completely.
Charge your Hulikkal lithium-ion battery whenever you want. There’s no need to let it discharge 100% before recharging. Hulikkal lithium-ion batteries work in Charge Cycles. You complete one Charge Cycle when you’ve used (discharged) an amount that equals 100% of your battery’s capacity — but not necessarily all from one charge. For instance, you might use 60% of your battery’s capacity one day, and then recharge it fully overnight. If you use 40% the next day, you will have discharged a total of 100%, and the two days will add up to one charge cycle.

It could take several days to complete a charge cycle. The capacity of any type of battery will diminish after a certain amount of recharging. With Hulikkal lithium-ion batteries, the capacity diminishes very slightly with each complete charge cycle. The expected life of the battery in Hulikkal E-Bikes is approx. 1,000 to 1,200 Charge Cycles

3.1 Maximizing Battery Life and Lifespan

“Battery life” is the amount of time your vehicle runs before it needs to be recharged and “Battery lifespan” is the amount of time your battery lasts until it needs to be replaced. Maximizing battery life and lifespan gets the most out of Hulikkal Vehicles. Lithium Batteries can last even longer when if it is regularly operated in the charge levels of 20% to 80%.
When not in use for long period of time it is advised to store the battery inhalf-charged condition for a long term, battery lasts longer. If you plan to store your battery for longer than six months, charge it to 50% after every six months. Depending on how long you store your device, it may be in a low-battery state when you remove it from long-term storage. After it’s removed from storage, it may require charging.

4.1 Battery Maintenance tips

1. Owners Manual: Read and follow the owner’s manual and warning stickers supplied with your bike. If you have any questions, call your e-bike dealer or the e-bike company and check.

2. Charger: Only use the charger supplied with your electric bike. Using a different charger can be very dangerous; possibly resulting in fire and/or explosion. So use the charger that came with your e-bike.

3. Charging: When you get a new e-bike make sure you fully charge the battery per the instructions provided with your e-bike before you ride the bike.

4. Avoid Extreme Temperatures: Very hot or cold temperatures can negatively affect the the performance of the battery and shorten its expected life. Avoid storing and charging battery in a garage or shed that could be subject to really hot or cold temperatures. Instead, charge and store your battery in a moderate temperature area.

5. Storing a Lithium Battery: If you will not be riding your electric bike for an extended period of time it is a good idea to store your lithium battery with a full charge. At the 3 month point, check the state of charge and recharge to top it off if necessary.

6. Charging Location: When charging your bike or battery, do so in a location that is dry, and where a hot battery or hot charger (should there be a malfunction) will not cause a damaging fire.

7. Avoid Humidity: Store your bike, battery and charger in a location that is dry. Water and humidity are not good for any electrical device.It makes charging easier

5.1 Ebike battery glossary:

Amp Hours:
Describes the rate of flow of currentthru a cell or battery pack

Watt Hours:
It is a measure of electrical energy equivalent to a power consumption of one watt for one hour – Describes the energy storage capacity of a cell or battery.

Voltage:
Describes the energy potential of the current supplied by a cell or battery.

Battery Management System:
A microchip controlled device that prevents (by limiting or shutting down the battery) over charge, over discharge, temperature events (thermal runaway), short circuits, and more. It also improves battery life and performance by balancing the cells, monitoring current flow, calibration wrt. age of the pack, and provides information that can be used for determining battery health, state of charge, and more.

Cycle Life:
Number of times a battery can be charged and discharged before it has suffered significant degradation of performance. A deep cycle is discharging the battery all the way to the safe limit, and recharging it to full capacity. A shallow discharge is to discharge it only a little and then recharge to full. Nominal cycle life is based on deep cycles.

Max Rate of Discharge:
Rate at which energy can be drawn from that battery [This limits torque, acceleration, etc.]

Rate of Charge:
Rate at which energy can be returned to the battery as a function of charging.

Nominal voltage
The unique-to-the-chemistry voltage that a cell should create.